Biblical Studies New Testament Studies

NT Servant Passages

Five NT Servant Passages: Colossians 3.22-25; Ephesians 6.5-8; 1 Timothy 6.1-2; Titus 2.9-10; 1 Peter 2.18-20 … and Christ as our example in 1 Peter 2.21-25.

Within the New Testament’s epistolary household codes (haustafeln), these five passages address servants in their relation to their masters. In New Testament cultures, slaves and servants comprised from one-third to one-half of the population, often performing economic roles roughly paralleled by a modern nation’s employees. Most of us would have been slaves. Believers listening to what the Holy Spirit is saying to the churches can learn to “bring Christ to work.”

Seven-page article includes parallel English and Greek text; grammatical diagrams; room for additional notes.


PDF ver. 2019-08-30
7 pp 8.5 x 11″ 2.5 mb

Version history:
2019-08-30: Updated w. minor text and diagram changes
2019-08-27: New release

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Foundations Hermeneutics / Exegesis

Classical Rhetoric:
Canons and Kinds (Trivium)

Two-page pdf charts describing the canons and kinds of classical rhetoric.

Canons: Classical rhetoricians identified five canons or parts of persuasive speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.

Kinds: There were three kinds of rhetoric in classical oration: deliberative, forensic, and epidictic.


PDF ver. 2014-08-16
2 pp. 4.67 x 7.08 and 7.08 x 4.67″ .09 mb

Version history:
2014-08-16: New release

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Biblical Studies Old Testament Studies Psalms Wisdom

Torah Hymn of the Two Ways: Psalm 1

Torah Hymn of the Two Ways: For Psalm 1, an overview, background, and foreground; interlinear of Hebrew, Greek, English:

  • The introduction contains an overview of the psalm and brief discussions of its background and foreground.
  • The reader contains the text of the Hebrew MT, the NASB95, the Greek LXX, and two lines of interlinear text.
  • The two lines of interlinear text set below the the Hebrew MT consists of ncBc’s literal translation and the Greek LXX.
  • In the footnotes for each clause is a transliteration of the Hebrew, the parsing of verbs for both the Hebrew and Greek text, and additional English translations and notes.

PDF ver. 2014-03-01
5 pp. 8.5 x 11″ .34 mb

PDF version history:
2014-03-01: Updated SKU
2012-01-17: New public release
2011-12-27: in-house original

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Biblical Studies Old Testament Studies Psalms Wisdom

Patterns of Praise: An Introduction to the Psalms

The article Patterns of Praise: An Introduction to the Psalms, with its charts and examples, serves as a quick reference both to reading and studying the Psalms as a whole and as individual psalms.

An introductory chapter focuses on collections, composition, settings, forms, and an approach to the psalms. The remaining three chapters highlight the setting, typical structure, and particular themes of the laments, thanksgivings, and hymns.


PDF ver. 2014-03-01
34 pp. 8.5 x 11″ .7 mb

PDF version history:
2014-03-01: Updated SKU (cf. v. 1.5)
2011-10-18: New release to site (cf. v. 1.4)
pre-2011: multiple internal releases

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Biblical Studies New Testament Studies

Vice and Virtue Lists of the New Testament

Vice and Virtue Lists of the New Testament addresses the lists found in every section of the New Testament and in almost every book.

Contents and highlights:

  • Introductory Article (pp. 1-4):
    • Lack of Old Testament influence
    • Ancient Greek influence
    • Stoic influences
    • Hellenistic-Jewish influences
    • Qumranic influence?
    • Post-NT examples
    • The impact of these influences on the New Testament writings
    • The variety of forms in the New Testament
    • The limits of the genre
    • The rhetorical functions of the NT lists
    • Distribution of Vice and Virtue Lists in the New Testament (chart)
  • Detailed Analysis (pp. 5-27):
    • Text (NASB95, UBS4) of every passage, highlighting in context each vice (219+) and virtue (149+), and providing explanatory notes. Vice-related entries are shown in blue. Virtue-related entries are shown in red.
    • The passages analyzed include:
      • Synoptic Gospels (to reflect influences of Jesus’ teaching on the epistles): Matthew 5.1-12; 15.1-20; Mark 7.20-23; Luke 6.20-35
      • Early General Epistle James 3.13-17
      • Paul’s Travel Epistles: Galatians 5.13-26; First Corinthians 5.9-11; 6.9-10; 13.1-13; Second Corinthians 6.1-10; 12.20-21; Romans 1.28-32; 13.13
      • Paul’s Prison Epistles: Colossians 3.1-17; Ephesians 4.1-3, 25-32; 5.1-14; 6.14-20; Philippians 4.8
      • Paul’s Pastoral Epistles: First Timothy 1.8-11; 3.1-7, 8-13; 4.12; 6.11; Titus 1.5-9; 3.1-3; Second Timothy 2.22; 3.1-13
      • Later General Epistles: First Peter 2.1-3; 3.8-9; 4.1-6, 15-16; Second Peter 1.1-11; Hebrews 7.26-27
      • John’s Apocalypse: Revelation 9.20-21; 21.5-8; 22.14-15
  • Exhaustive Concordance (pp. 29-50):
    • 188 entries, providing an exhaustive index of each vice and each virtue from the previous passages.
    • Items are listed alphabetically by Greek lexeme, with cognates grouped together under larger headings
    • NASB95 and UBS4 text is provided for context.
    • Again, the vice-related entries are shown in blue and the virtue-related entries are shown in red.

PDF ver. 2014-03-01
50 pp. 8.5 x 11″ 1.2 mb

PDF version history:
2014-03-01: Updated SKU
2010-10-25: Typo correction
2010-10-24 New release

Citation (items to consider; form will vary):

ncBc: Mike Sperou and Kevin Mitchell, ed. “Vice and Virtue Lists of the New Testament.” PDF resource published by North Clackamas Bible Community and available online at Last modified October 25, 2010.


The New Testament books without a vice or virtue list: Acts, John, First Thessalonians, Second Thessalonians, Philemon, Jude, First John, Second John, and Third John.

Regarding the order of composition for Colossians and Ephesians, the article consistently places Ephesians before Colossians. Technically, our contextual assumption is that the composition of Colossians (and Philemon) precedes Ephesians by as much as a month — though all were delivered to Asia at the same time. At some point, we may edit the resource to reflect this.

Vice and virtue lists, sometimes called ethical catalogs, served important rhetorical functions in the Hellenistic and Christian world of exhortation: preconversion calls to escape an old way of life and begin a new way (protrepsis); postconversion advice and instruction for continuing in a way of life (paraenesis).

As used by the New Testament writers, these lists were not simply informative. Along with the household codes and the advice for conduct among unbelievers, the New Testament vice and virtue lists were definitive of Christian growth, highlighting the virtue of love and the reality that growth demands reproof.

On household codes (haustafel), cf. esp. Col 3.18–4.1 and Eph 5.21–6.9; cf. Rom 13.1-7; 1Pe 2.13-15; 1Pe 3.1-7; Titus 2.1-10. Regarding advice for conduct among unbelievers, see: Col 4.2-6.

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