Foundations Biblical Languages

ncBc Grammar

Download a Hebrew grammar and syntax summary to accompany your exegesis of the Hebrew Bible / Old Testament.

The twenty page PDF, viewable and freely downloadable, includes a two-page “Hebrew Syntax Summary” for quick access to key syntactical concepts and their location in key Hebrew grammars.

Additional pages provide further detail and more specific references to beginning, intermediate, and advanced Hebrew grammars:

  • Orthography and Phonetics
    • Alphabet and Vowels
    • Accents and Syllables
  • Prefixes, Adjectives, Nouns
    • Prefixes: Articles, Prepositions, Vav Conjunction
    • Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns
    • Segholates; Construct Relationship
  • Pronominal Suffixes w. Prepositions, Particles, Nouns, and Verbs
  • Verbs
    • Binyānîm / Stems
    • Two Finite Conjugations
      • Perfect (qatal; suffixed) and its Aspect
      • Imperfect (yiqtol; prefixed) and its Aspect
    • One Volitional and Three Non-Finite Conjugations
      • Desires, Prohibitions, Commands — including the Imperative Conjugation
      • Two Infinitive Conjugations
      • The Participle Conjugation

Note, at the top and bottom of the embedded PDF, the icons for downloading or full-screen viewing.


PDF ver. 2020-04-08
20pp 8.5 x 11″ 700 kb

PDF version history:
2020-09-02: Public release to
2020-04-08: New internal release for ncBc classes

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Biblical Studies New Testament Studies

NT Servant Passages

Five NT Servant Passages: Colossians 3.22-25; Ephesians 6.5-8; 1 Timothy 6.1-2; Titus 2.9-10; 1 Peter 2.18-20 … and Christ as our example in 1 Peter 2.21-25.

Within the New Testament’s epistolary household codes (haustafeln), these five passages address servants in their relation to their masters. In New Testament cultures, slaves and servants comprised from one-third to one-half of the population, often performing economic roles roughly paralleled by a modern nation’s employees. Most of us would have been slaves. Believers listening to what the Holy Spirit is saying to the churches can learn to “bring Christ to work.”

Seven-page article includes parallel English and Greek text; grammatical diagrams; room for additional notes.


PDF ver. 2019-08-30
7 pp 8.5 x 11″ 2.5 mb

Version history:
2019-08-30: Updated w. minor text and diagram changes
2019-08-27: New release

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Foundations Hermeneutics / Exegesis

Classical Rhetoric:
Canons and Kinds (Trivium)

Two-page pdf charts describing the canons and kinds of classical rhetoric.

Canons: Classical rhetoricians identified five canons or parts of persuasive speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.

Kinds: There were three kinds of rhetoric in classical oration: deliberative, forensic, and epidictic.


PDF ver. 2014-08-16
2 pp. 4.67 x 7.08 and 7.08 x 4.67″ .09 mb

Version history:
2014-08-16: New release

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Biblical Studies Old Testament Studies Psalms Wisdom

Torah Hymn of the Two Ways: Psalm 1

Torah Hymn of the Two Ways: For Psalm 1, an overview, background, and foreground; interlinear of Hebrew, Greek, English:

  • The introduction contains an overview of the psalm and brief discussions of its background and foreground.
  • The reader contains the text of the Hebrew MT, the NASB95, the Greek LXX, and two lines of interlinear text.
  • The two lines of interlinear text set below the the Hebrew MT consists of ncBc’s literal translation and the Greek LXX.
  • In the footnotes for each clause is a transliteration of the Hebrew, the parsing of verbs for both the Hebrew and Greek text, and additional English translations and notes.

PDF ver. 2014-03-01
5 pp. 8.5 x 11″ .34 mb

PDF version history:
2014-03-01: Updated SKU
2012-01-17: New public release
2011-12-27: in-house original

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Biblical Studies Old Testament Studies Psalms Wisdom

Patterns of Praise: An Introduction to the Psalms

The article Patterns of Praise: An Introduction to the Psalms, with its charts and examples, serves as a quick reference both to reading and studying the Psalms as a whole and as individual psalms.

An introductory chapter focuses on collections, composition, settings, forms, and an approach to the psalms. The remaining three chapters highlight the setting, typical structure, and particular themes of the laments, thanksgivings, and hymns.


PDF ver. 2014-03-01
34 pp. 8.5 x 11″ .7 mb

PDF version history:
2014-03-01: Updated SKU (cf. v. 1.5)
2011-10-18: New release to site (cf. v. 1.4)
pre-2011: multiple internal releases

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