Foundations Biblical Languages

ncBc Grammar

Download a Hebrew grammar and syntax summary to accompany your exegesis of the Hebrew Bible / Old Testament.

The twenty page PDF, viewable and freely downloadable, includes a two-page “Hebrew Syntax Summary” for quick access to key syntactical concepts and their location in key Hebrew grammars.

Additional pages provide further detail and more specific references to beginning, intermediate, and advanced Hebrew grammars:

  • Orthography and Phonetics
    • Alphabet and Vowels
    • Accents and Syllables
  • Prefixes, Adjectives, Nouns
    • Prefixes: Articles, Prepositions, Vav Conjunction
    • Nouns, Adjectives, and Pronouns
    • Segholates; Construct Relationship
  • Pronominal Suffixes w. Prepositions, Particles, Nouns, and Verbs
  • Verbs
    • Binyānîm / Stems
    • Two Finite Conjugations
      • Perfect (qatal; suffixed) and its Aspect
      • Imperfect (yiqtol; prefixed) and its Aspect
    • One Volitional and Three Non-Finite Conjugations
      • Desires, Prohibitions, Commands — including the Imperative Conjugation
      • Two Infinitive Conjugations
      • The Participle Conjugation

Note, at the top and bottom of the embedded PDF, the icons for downloading or full-screen viewing.


PDF ver. 2020-04-08
20pp 8.5 x 11″ 700 kb

PDF version history:
2020-09-02: Public release to
2020-04-08: New internal release for ncBc classes

Hebrew ncBc Grammar | End | To the top ↑

Foundations Einleitungswissenschaft

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (OT)

Five-page chart lists and describes Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (OT) works using columns, e.g.: title, author/language, date, provenance, size/shape, genre, and theme. Separate groupings for:

  • Protestant Apocrypha
  • OT Pseudepigraha: Apocalyptic Literature and Related Works
  • OT Pseudepigraha: Testaments
  • OT Pseudepigraha: Expansions of the Old Testament and Legends (Rewritten Bible)
  • OT Pseudepigraha: Wisdom and Philosophical Literature
  • OT Pseudepigraha: Prayers, Psalms, Odes
  • OT Pseudepigraha: Supplement (Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works)

PDF ver. 2015-10-16
5 pp.11 x 8.5″ .09 mb

PDF version history:
2015-10-16: Spelling correction
2015-07-14: New release

Apocryphal / Pseudepigraphal OT Works | End | To the top ↑

Foundations Einleitungswissenschaft

Outline of the Dead Sea Scroll Documents

Seven-page outline of the Dead Sea Scroll Documents provides a detailed and recognizable structure for each of the well-preserved texts, including tags. Top-level structure includes:

  • Community Discipline (Community Rule, Damascus Document, etc.)
  • Religious Order (Calendars, Liturgies, Rituals)
  • The Last Days (Final Battle, Future Temple, Age to Come, etc.)
  • Literature (Devotional, Biblical, Apocryphal)

PDF ver. 2015-07-09
7pp. 8.5 x 11″ .1 mb

PDF version history:
2015-07-09: edit
2015-03-09: Updated SKU
2014-03-01: Updated SKU
2009-07-08: Corrected spelling
2009-07-04: New release (for internal use)

Outline of the DSS Documents | End | To the top ↑

Foundations Hermeneutics / Exegesis

Classical Rhetoric:
Canons and Kinds (Trivium)

Two-page pdf charts describing the canons and kinds of classical rhetoric.

Canons: Classical rhetoricians identified five canons or parts of persuasive speech: invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery.

Kinds: There were three kinds of rhetoric in classical oration: deliberative, forensic, and epidictic.


PDF ver. 2014-08-16
2 pp. 4.67 x 7.08 and 7.08 x 4.67″ .09 mb

Version history:
2014-08-16: New release

Classical Rhetoric: Canons and Kinds| END | To the top ↑

Foundations Einleitungswissenschaft

Biblically-Related Works from Qumran

Five-page chart, representing a selection of biblically-related works from Qumran. Columns include:

  • Title (e.g., The Book of Giants)
  • Relation to Bible (e.g., Genesis 6)
  • Tag (1Q23, etc.)
  • Date of Composition (e.g., Pre-Hasmonean)
  • Size (e.g., Various fragments)
  • Genre (e.g., Rewritten Bible / Narrative)
  • Theme (e.g., Elaboration on the Nephilim, etc.)

PDF ver. 2015-07-01
5 pp. 11 x 8.5″ .08 mb

PDF version history:
2015-07-01: edit
2015-03-09: Updated SKU
2014-03-01: Updated SKU; public release
2009-07-08: Spelling correction
2009-07-04: New release (for internal use)

Selected Biblically-Related Works … | End | To the top ↑