Hierarchical chart of the epistemological traditions

5311000-phi-dis-epist-traditions-cht-bcrxEpistemology: The various traditions (internalist v. externalist; foundationalism, coherentism, reliabilism, etc.), summarized below; are visually organized on the PDF chart:

  • Internalist — the justification is in the mind
    • Foundationalism — looks for beliefs that are self-justifying; basic and non-basic beliefs
      • Epistemic (Classical) — our ordinary beliefs require support from other beliefs, on which they rest.
      • Contemporary (Moderate, Fallibilist) — defensible basic propositions capable of being refuted by additional knowledge
    • Holistic Coherentism — looks for consistency within a comprehensive system; rests on a set of beliefs; no basic beliefs
      • Negative — a belief lacks justification if it fails to cohere with the system of beliefs.
      • Positive — a belief is justified when it coheres with the system of set beliefs.
  • Externalist — the justification is found outside the self
    • Reliabilist — the reliability of the process by which one arrives at one’s belief
    • Contextualist — dependence of language on its usage in the context of everyday life
    • Naturalized epistemology — uses the natural sciences to answer questions about justification

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