5142000-rom-rep509-027-1p7-5yr-tml-bcrx

Roman Republic – Timelines

Two timelines, covering Rome's Early Republic (509–264 BCE) and Mid- and Late Republic (264–27 BCE)

5142000-rom-rep509-027-1p7-5yr-tml-bcrxRoman Republic – Timelines: a set of timelines that covers key people and the international, political, and military events related to Rome’s Early Republic (first timeline) and Mid- and Late Republic (second timeline).

Early Republic (509–264 BCE)

  • Contextual international events
  • Politcal events
    • First secession of Plebs — Tribunate instituted (494)
    • Foedus Cassianum — Latin League formed (493)
    • Sp. Cassius executed for proposing land reform during consulship (485)
    • First dictatorship of Cincinnatus — saves Roman army (458)
    • Number of Plebeian tribunes increased to ten (457)
    • Decemvirs (451)
    • Twelve Tables (449)
    • Quaestors (447)
    • Censorship (443)
    • Work on Servian Wall begins (378)
    • Licinio-Sextian Laws (367)
    • Death of Camillus (365)
    • Renewed treaty with Carthage (348)
    • Campania incorporated into Roman state; Latin League dissolved (338)
    • First bronze coinage used in Rome (326)
    • Censorship of Ap. Claudius Caecus; Construction of Via Appia and Aqua Appia begins (312)
    • Plague hits Rome (293)
    • Third and final secession of plebs — plebiscites binding on all Romans (287)
    • First silver coins minted in Rome (269)
  • People: L. Iunius Brutus (545-509), Tarquin the Proud (c. 534-495), P. Valerius Poplicola (c. 560-503), L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (c. 519-438), T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (c. 505-430), Ap. Claudius the Decemvir (c. 510-449), M. Furius Camillus (c. 447-365), V. Maximus Corvus (c. 386-285), Ap. Claudius Caecus (c. 350-271), and L. Cornelius Scipio Scapula (c. 337-276).
  • Military events
    • Incursions of Sabines, Aequi, and Volsci (c. 486-431)
    • Veiian Wars (first, 483-474; second, 445-425)
    • Samnite Wars (first, 343-341; second, 327-304; and third, 298-290) and key battles: Corvus destroys Satricum (347/6), Romans defeated by Samnites at Caudine Forks (321), Romans defeat Samnites at Bovianum (305), and Roman victory at Sentinum (295)
    • Pyrrhic War (280-275) (cf. the Battles of Heraclea (280), Asculum (279), and Beneventum (275) — not shown on timeline)
    • Romans secure Italian peninsula: the North (283) and the South (272, with surrender of Tarentum)

Mid- and Late Republic (264–27 BCE)

  • Contextual international events
  • Politcal / cultural events
    • Land and voting reforms of Gaius Flaminius (232)
    • Gauls subjugated; Via Aemilia finished (187)
    • Tiberius Gracchi elected tribune (133)
    • Gaius Gracchi elected tribune (123)
    • Marian reforms of army by G. Marius (107)
    • Hypocaust heating system in pulbic baths (85)
    • “Royal Rule” of Sulla (82-80)
    • “First Triumvirate” of Pompey, Crassus, J. Caesar (59-53)
    • J. Caesar assasination led by G. Cassius and M. Brutus (44)
    • Second Triumvirate of Octavian, M. Lepidus, M. Antony (43-33)
    • Octavian accepts the title of “Augustus” assuming all powers of the magistrates (27)
  • People: M. Atilius Regulus, G. Cornelius, Scipio Asina, Scipio Africanus, M. Porcius Cato, Scipio Aemilianus, Gaius Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Marcus Crassius, Julius Caesar, Marcus Antonius, and Octavian.
  • Military events
    • Punic Wars (First, 264-241; Second, 218-201; Third, 149-146) and key battles: Battle of Cape Ecnomus (256), Hannibal defeats Rome at Battle of Cannae (216), Battle of Zama (Rome defeats Hannibal, 202).
    • Macedonian Wars (First, 215-205; Second, 200-196; Third, 179-168): cf. Roman victory at Pydna (168/7)
    • War with Seleucid Antiochus III (192-190): ends in Roman victory at Magnesia
    • Greek revolt; Rome destroys Corinth and Carthage (146)
    • Cimbrian War against Germanic tribes (113-101); Jugurthine War (111-104): Marius defeats Jugurtha and German Teutones, Cimbri (104-101)
    • Social War (91-88)
    • Mithridatic Wars against Mithridates VI of Pontus (88-63)
    • Battle of Colline Gate (82)
    • Slave revolt of Spartacus (73-71)
    • Pompey commands East; Pompey conquers Palestine (66, 63)
    • J. Caesar conquers Gaul (58-51)
    • Civil Wars: 49-45, J. Caesar victor; 44-30, M. Antony v. Octavian
    • Battle of Actium (31)

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Roman Republic – Timelines
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